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新华网 正文
去除衰老细胞可减缓认知衰退
2018-10-21 07:46:45 来源: 科技日报
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???????英国《自然》杂志近日发表了一篇生物学研究:美国科学家团队通过转基因小鼠实验,报告了衰老细胞与神经变性之间的因果关系,该最新研究结果将可为治疗神经退行性疾病开辟一条潜在的新治疗途径。

???????随着时间的推移,细胞增殖与分化能力和生理功能会逐渐发生衰退。正是细胞衰老死亡与新生细胞生长的动态平衡,维持着机体正常的生命活动。但过去的研究表明,随着年龄的增长,衰老细胞(失去分裂能力的功能失调细胞)在体内积聚,并积极促进组织变性。去除这些细胞可以抵抗衰老带来的许多影响。在脑老化和神经变性疾病的背景下也检测到了衰老细胞,不过它们在其中的作用尚不清楚。

???????此次,美国梅奥诊所科学家达伦·贝克及其同事,使用转基因小鼠模拟神经变性疾病,报告了衰老细胞在海马体等脑区的积聚。在小鼠的整个生命过程中,通过遗传修饰去除这些细胞,可以减少神经元tau蛋白磷酸化(以及后续的神经原纤维缠结累积),并防止皮质和海马体内的神经元变性(这两个脑区参与认知过程)。与未修饰的小鼠相比,修饰过的小鼠表现出记忆损失减少,这意味着衰老细胞会促进神经变性和认知功能的丧失。

???????在随附的新闻与观点文章中,美国麻省理工学院科学家认为,以上发现表明,在模型小鼠神经变性疾病发作之前,连续清除衰老细胞可能对疾病进展产生重要影响。现阶段还需要进一步的研究来确定这些发现是否适用于人类,是否可以实现临床转化。

???????总编辑圈点

???????衰老是一个缓慢发生的、不可逆的过程。毕竟,曾经叱咤风云,如今只能在炉火旁打盹,总是意难平。这份研究通过动物实验发现,衰老细胞的积聚和认知功能的减退有关,而且,清除衰老细胞,能让小鼠的记忆损失减少。这也就意味着,至少对小鼠而言,人们找到了让它的大脑重回正常轨道的方法。下一步,就是看这个发现在人身上能否奏效了。如果去除衰老细胞就能延缓大脑神经变性疾病的发作,相信很多不服老的人,愿意将此加入“抗衰保养豪华套餐”,定期去除衰老细胞,给大脑“美美容”。

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【纠错】 责任编辑: 魏承瑶
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    美国研究人员发现,用基因工程技术提高果蝇体内一种蛋白质的水平,能使其心肌细胞保持活力,寿命显著延长。这项研究为探寻心脏功能、代谢与寿命之间的关系提供了新线索。
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