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邓中夏:中国工人运动的著名领导人

2018-10-23 16:50:23 | 来源:新华社
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【原标题】邓中夏:中国工人运动的著名领导人

“五岭逶迤腾细浪,乌蒙磅礴走泥丸。”毛泽东主席诗中“五岭”之一的骑田岭,大部分位于湖南省南端的宜章县,县城北面的五岭镇也因此而得名。在五岭镇,有一个小村庄叫邓家湾,这里就是中国工人运动的著名领导人邓中夏的家乡。

来到邓家湾村,循着一段青石阶向里,就到了邓中夏故居前。这是一栋湘南民居格调的青砖瓦房,故居大门正上方悬挂着“邓中夏故居”牌匾,进入大厅,关于邓中夏生平的图文介绍,很容易就将参观者的思绪拉回到那激情燃烧的革命岁月。

邓中夏,1894年10月生,湖南宜章人。1914年考入湖南高等师范学校,1917年考入北京大学中文系,后转入哲学系学习。1919年参加五四运动,任北京学生联合会总务干事,参与火烧赵家楼的行动。1920年3月,在李大钊领导下,邓中夏、高君宇等人发起组织北京大学马克思学说研究会。同年10月,以马克思学说研究会的成员为骨干,发起组织了北京的共产党早期组织,李大钊为书记,邓中夏成为中国共产党最早的党员之一。

从1920年4月起,邓中夏长期在北京长辛店从事工人运动,主办工人劳动补习学校,建立工会,为北方工人运动培养了大批骨干力量。2018-10-23,他作为长辛店工人的代表,出席在广州召开的第一次全国劳动大会,当选为中国劳动组合书记部主任。同年7月,他出席党的二大,参与二大宣言和党的民主革命纲领的制定,被选为中央委员。不久,他又先后当选为中国社会主义青年团中央执行委员会委员、委员长,参与创办《中国青年》杂志。1923年他受李大钊推荐参加创办国民党和共产党合办的上海大学,任总务长。1925年中华全国总工会成立后,任秘书长兼宣传部长,留在广州工作,不久参与组织和领导了著名的省港大罢工。

在大革命失败的紧急关头,他坚决主张在南昌举行武装起义,并受中央派遣到九江,与李立三、谭平山、叶挺、聂荣臻等开会,分析形势,提出建议。随后,参加党的八七会议,坚决拥护会议确定的实行土地革命和武装起义的方针,被选为中央临时政治局候补委员。1928年3月赴莫斯科,出席赤色职工国际第四次代表大会,任中华全国总工会驻赤色职工国际代表。

1930年7月,邓中夏从莫斯科回到上海。不久,中央任命他为中央代表赴湘鄂西根据地,任湘鄂西特委书记、红二军团(后改为红三军)政委、前敌委员会书记、中央革命军事委员会委员,与贺龙、周逸群一起领导湘鄂西的武装斗争。1932年调回上海坚持秘密斗争,任全国赤色互济总会主任兼党团书记。

1933年5月,邓中夏在上海工作时被捕,随即被叛徒供出身份。蒋介石闻讯后亲自过问,并令立即将邓中夏押往南京国民党宪兵司令部监狱。在狱中,他以共产党员的坚定信念和钢铁意志,挺住了敌人金钱厚禄的利诱和严刑拷打的摧残。他对狱中地下党支部负责人说:“请告诉大家,就是把邓中夏的骨头烧成灰,邓中夏还是共产党员。”

2018-10-23,在南京雨花台刑场,邓中夏高呼着“打倒国民党反动派!”“中国共产党万岁!”“全世界无产阶级联合起来!”口号英勇就义,时年39岁。

邓中夏烈士虽然远去,但党和人民没有忘记他。如今,在位于宜章县城的中夏公园里,邓中夏铜像伫立其中,目视远方,而距离铜像十多公里外的邓家湾更是面貌一新,宽敞的公路,干净的巷道,还有闪亮的太阳能路灯……慕名前来瞻仰的游客,不仅为邓中夏的革命事迹所深深感动,也为邓中夏故乡的发展变化交口称赞。

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